With industrialization, there was more leisure time to be enjoyed. When the railway line from London to Brighton was established, going on holiday began to be a regular part of Victorian life. Thanks to the Bank Holiday Act of 1871 and the ease of rail travel, seaside resorts such as Blackpool and Torquay began to enjoy great popularity. There was time to read a novel during the Victorian period. Charles Dickens, Robert Lewis Stephenson, and H.G. Wells are just three of the authors who were popular. Attending the theatre and appreciating the talents of Sarah Bernhard and Ellen Terry kept the evenings busy. Melodrama was in its hey-day while the music hall was always packed with people enjoying the variety of acts presented.
Medicine Medical advances were tremendous during Victorian times. Boiling and scrubbing medical instruments before and after use was found to greatly increase a patient's chance for survival. The identification of disease took a great leap forward. Cholera was shown to be a product of sewage water. With the simple procedure of boiling drinking water and washing the hands, incidents of cholera dramatically drop. Codeine and iodine made their appearance in Victorian life. Morphine helped to alleviate pain while the use of chloroform during childbirth was pioneered by Queen Victoria… and highly recommended.
Although much of Great Britain's population did leave the countryside to reap the benefits of industrialization, village life did not come to an end.
Farming was still very much a part of life in Victorian Britain. With the advent of steampower, farm machinery was easier to use and made for a faster work day. Small gardens would supplement the family's food supply. Some villages would specialize in an industry. Lacemaking was popular. Craftsman (blacksmiths, tanners, carpenters) could always be found in a rural setting. To maintain the huge country estates of the wealthy, local villagers would provide the servant power during the season. Some rural folk would live on the estate throughout the year, often in conditions which were cramped. In their own homes, rural life in Victorian England was concerned with the basics cooking meals, mending clothes, and seeing that children received the education which was mandatory by 1880.
While life in Victorian England changed dramatically during the industrial revolution, the biggest social change was felt in the cities. Thousands of citizens left the rural life and came to the large metropolises for the guaranteed jobs which manufacturing offered. London, Manchester, and Birmingham all felt the effects of the growing industrialization. This influx of people into the city centers made for rapid growth and prosperity. However, there was also a very negative aspect as the crowds of workers had to be accommodated and cared for in a system which was not prepared to do so.
Tenement buildings were quickly built in Victorian London for factory workers and their families. Large houses were turned into flats. The cost of rent was extremely high, especially when a worker wanted to live within walking distance of his place of employment.
Conditions were often cramped as many members of a single family would live in one room. Many landlords were indifferent to the appalling conditions their tenents were living in and with housing so difficult to find, few tenants made a fuss. Running water, sanitation facilities, even cooking arrangements were roughshod at best. With tenements consisting of many floors, Victorian Londoners lived cheekbyjowl with their neighbors. Disputes were commonplace, and often caused by drunkenness. Wealthier families were able to enjoy single homes which often featured bay windows, running water, and even electricity.
Jack the Ripper immediately comes to mind when crime is mentioned. However, he was more the exception than the rule. Petty crimes, such as pickpocketing and foodsnatching, were a regular occurrence, but assault was not the norm. Violent crime (read that as crimes shedding a lot of blood) were very unusual. Doing a person in by poison was popular. Dr. Hawley Crippen is perhaps the most famous user of poison, although Dr. Thomas Cream had his share of press. When the Metropolitan Police was organized in 1829, 'bobbies' were a common sight on the city streets. The old palace which was used by the Scots, Scotland Yard, became their headquarters.
With the increase of people in the city, Victorian London began to build public facilities. The ease of transportation was helped with the construction of "The Tube" in 1863. Tower Bridge became a reality in 1894. Public squares were offered for pleasure, and for privacy to homeowners. The present Trafalgar Square was completed in 1845, after moving the royal stables elsewhere. Grosvenor Square, originally built to only be enjoyed by homeowners in the area, was improved and is now a public park. The Royal Albert Hall began to offer music in 1871. Buckingham Palace became the monarch's main London residence while Victoria was on the throne. To keep everyone on schedule, Big Ben, the clock tower of the Houses of Parliament was built in 1859.
In the early part of Victoria's reign, shopping (for the better off at least) was more a matter of getting into your carriage, arriving at the store front , and having the proprietor come to you. Along with him would come samples of what he had to sell, and transactions were done on the curbside. Victorian London food shopping was handled in the same fashion, although the baker or butcher would brings his food to the servants entrance of the home. From there, the housekeeper or cook would make the purchase. By the mid 1800 's, the idea of "Department Stores" took hold. Spending a day inside a shop, instead of outside on the curb, enabled a person to see more articles for sale. Wares were beginning to be displayed in shop windows, enticing the wouldbe purchaser to come through the front door.
The General Atmosphere of Victorian London
With the combination of sewage, coal fires, and unwashed bodies, the odor of London was horrendous. Both the rich and the poor had to contend with the evil air around the city. Even the Royal Family was not immune to the smells and at one time was forced to cancel a water excursion due to raw sewage being dumped into the Thames. Joseph Bazalgette is to be thanked for building miles of piping to direct sewage away from Victorian London. However, London streets were still filled with manure from horses.
Every surface was coated with soot from the use of coal. New buildings being constructed of Portland stone didn't stay pristine for long. The air people breathed was often foggy with the smoke from coal fires. Adding to the confusion, until the mid 1800's, cattle were driven through the streets of Victorian London, to and from the slaughterhouses that could be found in Smithfield.